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Brougham Castle from Castle Brougham Bridge over the River Eamont

Brougham Castle

A 13th Century castle built on the site of a former Roman fort known as Brocavum.
Building started around 1214 by Robert de Vieuxpont. It was built on the confluence of two rivers; The Lowther and the Eamont, providing a good strategic position against King John's northern enemies and their Scottish allies. Initially a stone keep was built which was surrounded by a wooden perimeter. Around 1300 the wooden surround started to be replaced with a stone wall. 

Through the marriage of Robert de Vieuxpont's great grand-daughter to Roger Clifford the castle changed hands and stayed in the Clifford family for 4 centuries. 

In 1296 the wars with Scotland heightened and the then owner, Robert Clifford, developed the castle with a gatehouse, top storey to the keep, the Tower of League in the castle's southwest corner and the stone curtain wall. The Anglo Saxon wars lasted for centuries and saw an ever increasing strengthening of the castle's defences and the growth of new buildings such as the Great Hall built in the early 1380s. 

A fierce battle in 1388 saw the Scots take the castle and it fell into disuse. It was not until 1421 that we have any historical record of the castle being in use again. The castle played an important role in the War of the Roses which saw the Lancastrian Clifford family at battle with the Yorkist Nevilles. 

Edward IV granted the castle to the Nevilles after John Clifford was killed fighting for John Henry VI in 1461. John's son, Henry, recovered the castle for the Cliffords from Henry VII and under the Tudor's he prospered. After three generations of Henry Clifford the castle declined under George Clifford who spent more time at Court in London than he did in Brougham. 

It was not until Lady Anne Clifford, daughter of George, assumed ownership in the middle of the 17th Century that the Castle was given new life. With the growing use of gunpowder, Lady Anne went against the trend of the day, and started to renovate the old castles and estates of the North. 

Following the death of Lady Anne, the earl of Thanet had no use for the northern castles and in 1714 he sold off most of the furnishings and fittings for £570, with the exception of the Tower of League. In 1723 however even this last Tower of Brougham endured the garage sale and its contents raised £40 and 5 shillings. The castle then fell into ruin. The decaying shell inspired William Wordsworth in his poem 'The Prelude'. 

The government took ownership in 1928, and fortunately since 1984 it has been in the hands of English Heritage who are preserving this historical site. 

The castle is open to visitors - contact English Heritage for further information. The castle grounds are dog friendly and great for children.  Brough Castle, another castle that was maintained by Lady Ann Clifford is near by and now under the stewardship of English Heritage.

The other Clifford Castles

The Clifford family owned a large part of Westmorland from the 1200's for over 4 centuries.  Lady Anne Clifford (1590-1676), perhaps the most notable Clifford, was a strong and determined Lady.  When her father died in 1605, the third Earl of Cumberland, she had to fight for her inheritance.  Eventually this was secured.  Lady Anne Clifford is credited with restoring the family legacy, not just Brougham Castle but the 3 other castles they owned.  Lady Anne is burried in St Lawrence Church, Appleby, alongside her mother, The Countess Margaret.

Brougham Castle from the pathway
Appleby Castle Tower
Pendragon Castle
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